Research

• Management and intensification of appropriate agro-forestry systems and MAPs.
• Under farm mechanization, various agricultural implements/tools like seed drills, improved hand and inter-culture tools, maize shellers and threshers are introduced in the villages to reduce drudgery and input costs.
• Power tillers are kept available for community use.
• Besides, different agricultural tools/implements are distributed to farmers on subsidized cost. • Up-gradation and management of natural resource base.
• Agro processing, value addition and improved marketing for enhancing profitability and employment opportunities.
• Feedback from the farmers with respect to problems in agriculture and related activities is encouraged and solutions given. • Vegetable production as intercrop in orchards.
• Seed production in paddy, wheat, and oats.
• Vegetable seedling production under protected condition has been taken.

Few Research Findings are given here as under;

Name Of The Crop

Critical Growth Stage

Rice

1.       Seedling stage.

2.       Maximum tillering stage.

3.       Panicle initiation stage.

4.       Anthesis/flowering stage.

5.       Milky stage.

6.       Dough stage.

Maize

1.       Seedling stage.

2.       Teaseling stage.

3.       Silking stage.

4.       Dough stage.

Wheat

1.       Crown root initiation stage.

2.       Tilering stage.

3.       Jointing stage.

4.       Boot leaf stage.

5.       Flowering stage.

6.       Milky and dough stage.

Barley

1.       Tilering stage.

2.       Flowering stage.

Sorghum

1.       Seedling stage.

2.       Pre-flowering stage.

3.       Flowering stage.

4.       Grain formation stage.

Mustard and Rape seed

1.       Pre-flowering stage.

2.       Pod filing stage.

Pulses

1.       Early growth stage.

2.       Post flowering or pod filling stage.

Sunflower

1.       Batoning stage.

2.       Grain filling stage.

Safflower

1.       Branching stage.

2.       Flower stage.

Tobacco

1.       In order to get higher tobacco leaf yield it is recommended to maintain 50 to 60% moisture. 

Sugarcane

1.       In order to get higher yield it is recommended to maintain 50% and 60% moisture during winter and summer, respectively.

Cotton

1.       Pre-flowering stage.

2.       Flowering stage.

3.       Fruit setting stage.

1.      2. The available water holding capacity of different soil texture classes are different as evidenced by the below mentioned table:

S. No.

Soil Texture

Available Water Holding Capacity (g/cc)

1

Clay loam or clay

0.17 to 0.18

2

Silt loam

0.16

3

Sandy clay loam

0.15

4

Fine sandy loam

0.13

5

Sandy loam

0.10

6

Loam firm

0.08

7

Loamy sand

0.07

8

Fine sand

0.05

9

Coarse sand

0.04

3. The world’s worst weeds along with their ranking are presented below:

Weeds ranking

Common name (Botanical name)

Occurrence

No. of crops

No. of countries

1st

Nut grass (Cyperus rotundus)

52

92

2nd

Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

40

80

3rd

Barnyard grass (Echnichloa colonum)

36

61

4th

Jungle rice (Echinochloa crusgalli)

35

60

5th

Goose grass (Eleusine indica)

46

60

6th

Jhonson grass (Sorghum halpense)

30

53

7th

(Imperate cylindica)

35

73

8th

Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

_

_

9th

Kulfa (Portulaca oleracea)

45

81

10th

Fat hen (Chenopodium album)

40

47

11th

Large crab grass (Digitaria sauguinalis)

33

56

12th

Field bind weed (Convolvulus arvenisis)

32

44

4. The critical period of weed competition for different crops is given below:

Name of the crop

Critical period (days after sowing)

From

To

Transplanted rice

15

45

Soybean

15

45

Sorghum

15

45

Finger millet

25

45

Black-gram

30

45

Maize

15

35

Upland rice

Entire period

  1. The different weed control methods may be broadly classified in the below mentioned tabular form:

Methods of Weed Control

Mechanical methods

Cropping methods

Biological methods

Chemical methods

1. Hoeing

1. Crop rotation

1. Parasites

1. Selective herbicides

2. Handpulling

2.  Kind of crop

2. Predators

(a) Foliage application

3. Tillage

3.  Use of fertilizers

3. Pathogens

(i) Contact

4. Moving

4.  Date of sowing

 

(ii) Translocated

5. Burning

5.  Seed/planting rate

 

(b) Soil application

6. Flooding

  

2. Non-selective herbicides

7. Mulching

  

(a) Foliage application

   

(i) Contact

   

(ii) Translocated

   

(b) Soil application

  1. Organic herbicides can be divided into 16 groups. These are given as under:

S. No.

Group

Herbicides

1

Amides

Alachlor, Butachlor, Diphenamid, Metolachlor, Propanil, Propachlor.

2

Aliphatics

Dalapon, Glyphosate, Methyl bromide, TCA.

3

Benjoics

Chloramben, Dicamba, Tricamba, 2, 3, 6-TBA.

4

Bipyridiliums

Diquat, Paraquat.

5

Carbamates

Asulan, Barban, Chlorpropham, Dichlormate, Propham.

6

Thiocarbamates

Butylate, Cycloate, Diallate, EPTC, Molinate, Pebulate, Thioencarb or Benthiocarb, Triallate, Vernolate.

7

Dithiocabamates

CDEC, Metham.

8

Nitriles

Bromoxynil, Dichlobenil, Ioxyynil.

9

Dinitroanilines

Fluchloralin, Pendimethalin, Nitralin, Oryzalin, Trifluralin

10

Phenols

Dinoseb, DNOC, PCP.

11

Phenoxys

2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T, 2, 4-DB, 2, 4-DEP, Diclofop, Dichlorprop (2, 4-DP), MCPA, MCPB, Mecoprop (MCPP). 

12

Triazines

Atrazine, Ametryn, Cyprazine, Cyanazine, Metribuzin, Propazine, Simazine, Terbutryn.

13

Ureas

Diuwn, Isoproturon, Linuron, Methahenzthiazuron, Metoxuron, Monuron, Siduron.

14

Uracils

Bromacil, Isocil, Lenacil, Terhacil.

15

Diphenyl ethers

Nitrofen, Oxyfluorfen.

16

Others

Bentozon or Oxadiazon, Endothall, Picloram, Pyrazon.

  1. The harvest maturity symptoms of some important crops are tabulated below:

Crop

Harvest-maturity symptoms

Rice

Hard and yellow coloured grains.

Wheat

Yellowing of spikelets.

Sorghum

Hard grain and yellow coloured ears.

Pearl millet

Compact ears, on pressing hard seeds come out.

Finger millet

Brown coloured ears with hard grains.

Foxtail millet

Compact ears, on pressing hard seeds come out.

Groundnut

Pods turn dark from light colour. Dark coloured patches inside the shell. Kernels red to pink. On pressing the kernels, oil is observed on fingers. 

Pulses

Brown coloured pods with hard seeds inside pods.

Tobacco

Leaves slightly yellow in colour, specks appear on the leaves.

Sugarcane

Leaves may tern yellow, sucrose content more than 10% and brix reading more than 18%.

5. The different weed control methods may be broadly classified in the below mentioned tabular form:

Mechanical methods

Cropping methods

Biological methods

Chemical methods

1. Hoeing

1. Crop rotation

1. Parasites

1. Selective herbicides

2. Handpulling

2.  Kind of crop

2. Predators

(a) Foliage application

3. Tillage

3.  Use of fertilizers

3. Pathogens

(i) Contact

4. Moving

4.  Date of sowing

 

(ii) Translocated

5. Burning

5.  Seed/planting rate

 

(b) Soil application

6. Flooding

 

 

2. Non-selective herbicides

7. Mulching

 

 

(a) Foliage application

 

 

 

(i) Contact

 

 

 

(ii) Translocated

 

 

 

(b) Soil application

6. Organic herbicides can be divided into 16 groups. These are given as under:

S. No.

Group

Herbicides

1

Amides

Alachlor, Butachlor, Diphenamid, Metolachlor, Propanil, Propachlor.

2

Aliphatics

Dalapon, Glyphosate, Methyl bromide, TCA.

3

Benjoics

Chloramben, Dicamba, Tricamba, 2, 3, 6-TBA.

4

Bipyridiliums

Diquat, Paraquat.

5

Carbamates

Asulan, Barban, Chlorpropham, Dichlormate, Propham.

6

Thiocarbamates

Butylate, Cycloate, Diallate, EPTC, Molinate, Pebulate, Thioencarb or Benthiocarb, Triallate, Vernolate.

7

Dithiocabamates

CDEC, Metham.

8

Nitriles

Bromoxynil, Dichlobenil, Ioxyynil.

9

Dinitroanilines

Fluchloralin, Pendimethalin, Nitralin, Oryzalin, Trifluralin

10

Phenols

Dinoseb, DNOC, PCP.

11

Phenoxys

2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T, 2, 4-DB, 2, 4-DEP, Diclofop, Dichlorprop (2, 4-DP), MCPA, MCPB, Mecoprop (MCPP). 

12

Triazines

Atrazine, Ametryn, Cyprazine, Cyanazine, Metribuzin, Propazine, Simazine, Terbutryn.

13

Ureas

Diuwn, Isoproturon, Linuron, Methahenzthiazuron, Metoxuron, Monuron, Siduron.

14

Uracils

Bromacil, Isocil, Lenacil, Terhacil.

15

Diphenyl ethers

Nitrofen, Oxyfluorfen.

16

Others

Bentozon or Oxadiazon, Endothall, Picloram, Pyrazon.

7. The criteria for harvesting of crops are given in the below mentioned table:

Crop

Criteria for harvesting

Rice

         i.            32 days after flowering.

       ii.            Moisture content of grains less than 20%

      iii.            At least 5 hills are to be studied at maturity.

     iv.            Percentage of milky grains less than 1%.

       v.            Green grains not more than 4 to 9%.

     vi.            80% panicles are straw coloured.

    vii.            Grains in lower portion of panicle are in hard dough stage.

Wheat

         i.            Moisture content of grains is about 15%.

       ii.            Grains are in hard dough stage.

Sorghum

         i.            40 days after flowering.

       ii.            Moisture content of grains less than 28%.

Pearl millet

         i.            28 to 35 days after flowering.

Maize

         i.            Moisture content of grains less than 22 to 25%.

       ii.            Husk colour turns pale brown.

      iii.            25 to 30 days after tasselling.

Redgram 

         i.            35 to 40 days after flowering.

       ii.            80 to 85% of pods turn brown.

Blackgram

         i.            Pods turn brown or black.

Greengram

         i.            Pods turn black or brown.

Cotton

         i.            Bolls fully opened.

Sugarcane

         i.            The ration of brix between top and bottom part of cane nearly 1.

       ii.            Brix 18 to 20%.

      iii.            Sucrose 15%

 

  1. Moisture content of grains for safe storage is given in the below mentioned table:

 

Crop

Moisture content (%)

Paddy (Raw rice)

14

Paddy (parboiled rice)

15

Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Barley, Pearl-millet, Finger-millet, and Pulses

12

Chillies, Fenugreek, and Coriander

10

Groundnut (Pods), Rapeseed and Mustard

6

8. Moisture control of seeds requires; protecting dried seed from moisture and high relative humidity. Methods include:

  • a. Keeping short-term non-conditioned storage as dry as possible.
  • b. Lowering storage humidity by ventilating a well constructed non-conditioned storage when ambient relative humidity is low.
  • c. Placing low moisture seeds in a vapour proofed storage when relative humidity is very high and keeping the storage sealed to prevent entry of moisture.
  • d. Dehumidifying the air inside a completely vapour proof storage.
  • e. Packing vey dry seeds in hermetically sealed vapour proof containers.

9. Moisture content of grains for safe storage is given in the below mentioned table:

Crop

Moisture content (%)

Paddy (Raw rice)

14

Paddy (parboiled rice)

15

Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Barley, Pearl-millet, Finger-millet, and Pulses

12

Chillies, Fenugreek, and Coriander

10

Groundnut (Pods), Rapeseed and Mustard

6

10. The harvest maturity symptoms of some important crops are tabulated below:

Crop

Harvest-maturity symptoms

Rice

Hard and yellow coloured grains.

Wheat

Yellowing of spikelets.

Sorghum

Hard grain and yellow coloured ears.

Pearl millet

Compact ears, on pressing hard seeds come out.

Finger millet

Brown coloured ears with hard grains.

Foxtail millet

Compact ears, on pressing hard seeds come out.

Groundnut

Pods turn dark from light colour. Dark coloured patches inside the shell. Kernels red to pink. On pressing the kernels, oil is observed on fingers. 

Pulses

Brown coloured pods with hard seeds inside pods.

Tobacco

Leaves slightly yellow in colour, specks appear on the leaves.

Sugarcane

Leaves may tern yellow, sucrose content more than 10% and brix reading more than 18%.

11. When seeds in vapour porous packages are taken from cold storage into warm humid outside air, seed temperature may be below the dew point of the air. When this occurs, moisture from the air condenses on the seed, moisture increases and the seeds lose viability rapidly. This can be prevented by:

  • a. Packing seeds in vapour tight packages for cold
  • b. Quickly moving seeds in vapour porous packages from cold storage into a dehumidified room at ambient temperature for storage until seeds warm up to outside temperatures.
  • c. Removing all seeds from a cold dehumidified storage at about the same time, stopping the cooling equipment and operating only the dehumidifier until seeds warm up to outside temperatures.

12.Good stacking management includes:

  • a. Provision of proper ventilation around seeds, stacking only on pallets or crates with at least 10 cm open space between stacks and walls and 50 to 60 cm above stacks.
  • b. Provision of adequate aisle space so that storage operations do not damage bags and also to facilitate inspection.

13. The optimum time of harvesting of different crops for hay making is given below:

 

S No.

Name of crop

Time of harvesting

1

Cereals

Soft dough to medium dough stage

2

Soybean

Pod half grown

3

Cowpea

First pod maturity

4

Clover

Early bloom to full bloom

5

Lucerne

Early bloom to full bloom

 

14. The quantities of preservatives to be added (per 100 kg of green fodder) to the silage are given in the below mentioned table:

Silage material

Quantities of preservatives or additives

Grasses

        i.            2.7 to 3.6 kg of molasses or

      ii.            4.5 to 6.8 kg of kibbled or broken cereal grains or

    iii.            4.5 kg of citrus pulp or beet pulp.

Legumes

        i.            3.6 to 4.5 kg of molasses or

      ii.            6.8  kg of citrus or beet pulp or

    iii.            6.8 to 11.3 kg of broken cereal grains.

Grasses + legumes

        i.            3.6 kg of molasses or

      ii.            6.8  to 9 kg of broken cereal grains or

    iii.            4.5 kg of citrus pulp or beet pulp.

15. The direct effects of soil acidity on plants are:

  • a. Influence of soil acidity on the permeability of the plant membranes for cations.
  • b. Disturbance in the balance between basic and acidic constituents through the roots.
  • c. Toxic effect of H ions on root tissues.    

16. The indirect effects of soil acidity on plants are:

  • a. The availability of elements like aluminium, iron, manganese etc. is increased to a point when they become toxic to the plants.
  • b. In highly acid soils, the availability of various nutrients e. Calcium, nitrogen, copper, zinc, phosphorus etc. are reduced to starvation level i.e. become unavailable and plant growth suffers.
  • c. Beneficial activities of soil micro-organisms like; nitrification, nitrogen fixation, prevention of plant diseases, and decomposition of organic matter are adversely affected.

 

17. The common liming materials used for the reclamation of acid soils are as under:

  • a. Quick lime(CaO)
  • b. Hydrated (Slaked) lime [Ca(OH)2]
  • c. Lime stone (CaCO3)
  • d. Blast furnace slag (CaSiO)3
  • e. Dolomitic lime stone [CaMg(CO3)2]
  • f. Miscellaneous sources like; ground oyster shell, wood ash etc.

18. When acid soils are well supplied with lime, the below mentioned results are observed:

  • a. Plant diseases favoured by acid soils decreases.
  • b. Makes phosphorus more available.
  • c. Fertilizer effectiveness increases.
  • d. Increases the availability of nitrogen, due to increase in nitrification, and nitrogen fixation.
  • e. Checks soil erosion.
  • f. Increase decomposition of organic matter.
  • g. Improves the physical condition of the soil.
  • h. Makes potassium more efficient in plant nutrition.
  • i. Increases flocculating power of the soil.
  • j. Beneficial soil bacteria are encouraged.
  • k. Calcium and magnesium become available.
  • l. Harmful aluminium, iron, and manganese are reduced insoluble and harmless.

19. The responses of crop to lime are given below:

The use of lime on acid soil increases the yield of most crops.

  • a. Legume greatly and sugarcane appreciably respond to lime application.
  • b. Lime application substantially increased the yield of wheat, maize, soybean, groundnut, and gram.

The response to liming on jowar, barley, linseed, mustard, greengram. Lentil, arhar, and cotton are also encouraging. 

20. The technical requirements for reclamation of saline and alkali soils are:

  • a. Availability of sufficient water to meet crop use and also leach the salt below the root zone in the soil.
  • b. Irrigation water should be of good quality.
  • c. There should be adequate drainage.
  • d. Better soil management including perfect land leveling, good bunding for irrigation, and advanced agronomic practices.
  • e. Protection and reclamation should be taken in large blocks.

21. The cultural methods used for the reclamation/management of alkali soils are:

  • a. Availability of sufficient water to meet crop use and also leach the salt below the root zone in the soil.
  • b. Irrigation water should be of good quality.
  • c. There should be adequate drainage.
  • d. Better soil management including perfect land leveling, good bunding for irrigation, and advanced agronomic practices.
  • e. Protection and reclamation should be taken in large blocks.

22. The type of vegetation cover and its condition aids in controlling water erosion in the below mentioned ways:

  • a. Vegetation cover protects the soil from the beating and dispersing action of the raindrops by forming a canopy over the soil surface.
  • b. Vegetation provides a mechanical obstruction to flowing water thus, reducing their velocity and soil carrying capacity.
  • c. The root helps in the building better structure i.e. sphere like that increases infiltration and reduces a surface runoff.
  • d. Roots help in opening the soil and thereby aid in increasing water absorption and in reducing surface runoff.

23. There are seven types of water erosion, these are; (1) splash erosion, (2) sheet erosion, (3) rill erosion, (4) gully erosion, (5) slip erosion, (6) stream bank erosion, and (7) sea shore erosion.

24. The main objectives in controlling soil erosion caused by water are:

  • a. To reduce surface runoff.
  • b. To put mechanical obstruction in the way of flowing water.
  • c. To reduce dispersion of soil particles.

25. The gully control can be done in the below mentioned steps:

  • a. In the first step, water flowing into the gully should be diverted away by means of bund.
  • b. The second step is to build several obstructions in the gully such as rock dams.
  • c. The gullies should be established under permanent grass and tree vegetation.
  • d. Sometimes a gully may be adequately established by converting it into a paddy field.

26. Soil erosion by wind is affected by the six factors viz., (1) continuous dry weather, (2) vegetation, (3) wind velocity and turbulence, (4) tillage, (5) organic matter content, and (6) soil structure.

27. There are two main principles that should be adopted for controlling soil erosion by wind:

  • a. To reduce the erodibility of the soil.
  • b. To reduce wind velocity at ground level.

28. Tall bushy shrubs suitable for shelterbelts are:

  • a. Cassia auriculata.
  • b. Dondoned viscose.
  • c. Glyricidia maculate.
  • d. Saccharum munja.
  • e. Zizyphus species.

29. Tall trees suitable for shelterbelts are:

a. Neem (Azadirachta indica).

b. Siris (Albizzia lebbek).

c. Babul (Acacia arabica).

d. Shisham (Dalbergia sisso).

e. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rostrata).

30. The method by which the drifting of the sand is prevented consists:

.

a. Establishing some soil or sand binding vegetation on these dunes.

b. Suitable grasses, generally with a creeping habit and trees which can grow in sandy situations have to be planted and their growth encouraged.

31. The important causes of soil erosion are; (1) removal of vegetation, (2) deforestation, (3) shifting cultivation, (4) faulty methods of cultivation, and (5) destruction and overgrazing of pastures.

32. Fertility erosion may be controlled by following the below mentioned conservation methods:

a. Use of organic matter.

b. Strip cropping.

c. Vegetative cover.

d. Provision of outlet channel

33. The splash erosion process produces puddle erosion. The puddle erosion may be controlled by:

a. Growing cover crops.

b. Growing grasses.

c. Use of organic matter.

d. Use of stubble mulch.

34. The adverse effects of soil erosion are here as under:

a. The top fertile soil is lost by erosion. Due to formation of gullies and ravine valuable agricultural lands are lost.

b. Due to erosion content of organic matter is decreased in the soil.

c. Due to erosion, structure of the soil becomes

d. As the water and wind continuous to carry away the top soil, the nutrient status of land declines. It is estimated that the annual loss of fertility by erosion is 20 times faster that what is removed by the crops.

e. When the field is cut into rills and gullies, the difficulties of ploughing and other farm operations are considerable increased.

f. When the soil is removed from a field, both available and potential plant food along with mineral material is carried away. As erosion progresses, compact soil of relatively low infiltration capacity approached. The ability of the land to supply

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