Advisory for Farmers of the Kashmir Valley

Advisory for the Month of January;

  • 1. Cover flowering house plants with double layer of newspapers, which in turn are covered with large sheets of brown paper. Avoid splashing of water over the plants.
  • 2.In case of heavy snowfall go for shaking of limbs-mechanically in orchards and nursery.
  • 3.Hot bed preparations can be started for raising vegetable nursery in advance.
  • 4. Adopt Modified Leader System of training and pruning for stone, nut, and pome fruits, and Head-Kniffin or Bower System in grapes if not done earlier in bearing trees.
  • 5. Create surface drainage channels in the fields of brown sarson and other rabi crops where there is likelihood of water stagnation during the spring months.
  • 6.Apply white lead paint or Bordeaux/ Chaubattia paste on the cuts/scrapped surface of fruit trees.
  • 1. Ensure orchard/field sanitation.
  • 2. Improving and repairing of drainage channels in fields and orchards.
  • 3. Pruning of established roses can be done towards the end of the month.
  • 4. In line sown sarson maintain inter and intra row spacing of 30 ´ 10 cm and under broadcasted conditions maintain 35 plants per square meter area.
  • 5. Preparation of hot-beds may be completed and sowing of seeds may be started.
  • 6. Apply 15 kg nitrogen per hectare as first top dressing in last week in sarson crop.
  • 7. In case of uprooted trees consequent to heavy snowfall cover their roots with soil to prevent their desiccation and subject such trees to heavy pruning before resumption of active growth in spring.

 

Advisory for the Month of March

  • 1. March is ideal month for planting bare-rooted rose plants.
  • 2. Perform grafting of apple, pear, plum, grapes etc.
  • 3. Apply remaining quantity of 15 kg nitrogen per hectare as 2nd top-dressing at flowering stage in sarson.
  • 4. Sow seeds of different fruits if not sown earlier and transplant suckers / seedlings of different fruit plants.
  • 5.Top-dressing of nitrogen and weeding, hoeing in wheat may be done in 2nd
  • 6. Drain excess water from seed and nursery beds.
  • 7. Thinning in pea should be done during 2nd fortnight maintaining inter and intra row spacing of 40 and 10 cm respectively.
  • 8. Prune fruit trees if not pruned earlier. Paint wounds where wound exceeds 2 cm with white lead paint.
  • 9. In fodder oat, 1st top-dressing of nitrogen if not applied during last week of February, the same should be applied by the 1st week of March.
  • 10. Provide proper drainage in apple orchards to drain off surface water.
  • 11. Adopt Modified Leader System of training to young apple trees and Kniffen and Bower System in grapes.
  • 12.Sow seeds of herbaceous perennials like Delphinium, Columbine, Statice, Platycodon, Phlox, and Gypsophylla by the end of March.
  • 13. To raise seedlings of tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum and knoll-khol in open beds the convenient size beds (2 ´ 1 m) may be thoroughly prepared for raising of nursry.
  • 14. Sowing of tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum, knoll-khol, sag and cucurbits should be done in hot beds.

Advisory for the Month of April;

  • 1.White wash fruit trees especially with making formulation of hydrated lime 0.5 kg, Zinc Sulphate 0.03 kg and water 1000 lit. Add glue as per requirement.
  • 2.In case of aphid infestation on mustard spray Methyl Demeton (25EC) @ 1ml/litre.
  • 3. Timely sown oat and berseem should be cut during the first week of April. In case of berseem the cut should be 5 cm above the soil surface to facilitate quick re-growth. Irrigation be given immediately after cutting operation and apply 20 kg nitrogen as 2nd top-dressing immediately after the first cut.
  • 4. Radish sowing may be continued.
  • 5. Preparatory tillage for maize should be started.
  • 6. Transplanting of seedlings of cole crops from hot beds should be done.
  • 7.Land preparation for paddy nursery should be started by selecting 5% of the land in which paddy is to be transplanted for nursery purposes.
  • 8.Cole and solanaceous vegetables may be sown by sowing of seeds in open nursery and convenient sized beds (2 ´ 1 m) may be prepared for raising nursery.
  • 9. Orchards under rainfed conditions apply half dose of N and full dose of K and P during the month for all fruit trees. Under irrigated conditions apply half dose of N and K along full dose of P. Apply fertilizers strictly according to the package of practices of State Agriculture University.
  • 10.Remove suckers from orchards and scrap dead barks and lichens from trees with bark scraper.

 

Advisory for the Month of May;

  • 1.For apple scab and other foliar diseases conduct 2nd spray at petal fall (about 3 weeks after 1st spray) as per the recommendations provided in the spray schedule framed by State Agriculture University.
  • 2. 2nd cutting of berseem be taken 30 days after 1st cutting during the 1st week of May and irrigate the fields immediately after cutting. In fodder oats final cutting be taken exactly when the crop has reached flowering stage i.e. flowering initiation.
  • 3. House plant potting and re-potting should be completed by the end of May. Give sufficient water to the pots until the excess water comes out through the drainage holes lift winter and spring flowering bulbs from pots.
  • 4. Fertilization of trees should be done by applying fertilizer (if not applied earlier) slightly away from the trunk up to the outer edge of the canopy of apple tree.
  • 5 Seed sowing of cole, cucurbit, and solanaceaous crops may be continued.
  • 6. Mulching (particularly under karewa conditions) should be done with green grass or straw to conserve moisture through precipitation. This will also help in suppressing weed growth.

Advisory for the Month of June;

  1. 1. In maize crop give 1st hand weeding when the plants are 10 to 12 cm tall i.e. 30 days after sowing give 2nd hand weeding 10 to 15 days after the 1st weeding, give 3rd weeding accompanied by earthing up operation about 50 to 55 days after sowing. Use 2 kg of Atrazine/ha as pre-emergence spray using 600 to 800 litres of water. In such case, give 1 hand weeding and earthing up, about 50 to 55 days after sowing.
  2. 2. Paddy transplantation should be started by using only 35 days old seedlings and complete transplanting by 15th Transplant robust seedlings at 3 to 4 leaf stage when plants are of about 20 cm height and only 3 healthy seedlings should be planted per hill whereas, 6 seedlings/hill under water-logged conditions keeping inter and intra row spacing 15 ´ 15 cm and 20 ´ 15 cm, respectively.
  • 3. Harvesting of cherry fruits should be started after ensuring that it has attained desirable characteristic size, colour, texture and flavor. Fruits must be harvested carefully to avoid bruising.
  • 4. Preparatory tillage of moong should be started with 2 to 3 ploughings accompanied by planking to obtain a desirable seed bed. For this purpose, 1 packet of Rhizobium culture is sufficient for 10 kg of seed. Make 10% gur solution (2 litres which will suffice to treat 10 kgs of seed). Treat the seeds for 10 minutes and dry under shade. Do not treat the seeds with Agroson or with any fungicide, in case of Rhizobium treatment.

Advisory for the Month of July;

  • 1. Sowing of seeds of knoll khol, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale should be done in nursery beds with a fine tilth. In case of cabbage soil or seeds may be treated with Azotobacter or Azospirillium @2.5 kg/ha to enhance yield.
  • 2.In maize; under irrigated conditions apply to dressing of N in 2 equal splits, 1st at the time of 1st weeding/ hoeing and 2nd split at the time of last weeding and hoeing. Under rainfed conditions top dressing of N should be done in a single dose at the time of 2nd weeding and hoeing operation.
  • 3. The budding operation in case of stone fruits should be conducted during 1st fortnight of July. Before budding operation nursery should be irrigated for effective sap flow.
  • 4. In rice; the top dressing of N be applied in 2 equal splits; 1st at tillering initiation i.e. 15 to 18 days after transplanting, and 2nd split at panicle initiation stage i.e. about 38 days after transplanting.
  • 5.Harvesting of stone fruits should be conducted once after fruit have attained proper size and characteristic colour.
  • Sowing of fodder crops like; sorghum, maize, bajra etc. can be done up-to mid-July.

Advisory for the Month of August;

  • 1. In case of maize top dressing of N @ 40 kg/ha should be done at knee-height stage. For other fodder crops like sorghum and bajra, apply top dose of N when plants have attained height of about 20 cm.
  • 2. For fertilizer and water management in paddy, apply 2nd top-dressing of N at panicle initiation stage i.e. 38 to 40 days after transplanting. 3.Drain out water from the field after the surface soil begins to crack. Avoid water stress at flowering stage.
  • 4. In case of maize, wherever possible irrigation may be given at silking stage i.e. 75 days after sowing.
  • 5.Harvesting of fruits must be done when they attain proper size and develop at least 50% of the varietal colour. Fruits are easy to detach and collect them in baskets to avoid bruises and cuts.
  • 6.Almond should be harvested when the hulls begin to separate on tree itself.
  • 7. in case of grapes, harvesting should be done when berries in the bunch have attained proper size, develop varietal colour and sweetness.
  • 8. Keep the fruits under shade and clip off damaged and diseased berries from bunches.
  • 9.Sort and grade harvested fruits. While packing fruits utmost care should be given to grading and quality of fruits.

Advisory for the Month of September;

  • 1.In case of walnut, harvesting should be done only after ensuring that packing tissue of nuts has turned brown and hull removal is easy.
  • 2. Walnuts can be harvested one week before expected date of harvest if sprayed with Ethephon 2000 ppm. This will hasten the dehiscence process and nuts obtained shall be clear without dark spots.
  • 3. Harvesting of apple should be continued keeping in mind that fruits should be harvested only after they have attained characteristic skin colour, flesh and seed. Mature fruits generally tend to hold less tightly to trees and as such detach easily. Random samples should be subjected to starch-iodine tests and starch rating should be from 2 to 2.5 on 1-6 rating scale. Fruit firmness test should be done with the help of pressure tester and fruit pressure should range between 15 to 17 lbs/sq. inch.
  • 4. In case of rice; stop irrigation after the advanced dough stage. Harvest the crop at physiological maturity stage. This is essential to avoid shedding of grains.
  • 5. Select such land for the brown sarson/oilseed cultivation which possesses drainage facilities. Irrigate the land before ploughing wherever the fields are not in proper moisture condition, 2 ploughings accompanied by clod breaking operation will be adequate for obtaining a desirable seed bed. 1st ploughing should be given when fields are in proper moisture condition which can be determined by firmly pressing the soil in the fist and subsequently releasing the soil ball in the air. If soil mass disintegrates, then plough the land.
  • 6. In case of maize pick the cobs from standing plants when the husk has turned yellowish brown in colour and grains contain about 22% moisture at this stage.
  • 7. Dry the cobs in the open sun.
  • 8. Thresh the cobs when maize grains have about 15% moisture content, but storage should be done at about 12% moisture content.
  • Under field conditions dry the maize grains in open sun for 4 to 5 days, before storage.

 

Advisory for the Month of October;

  • 1. Any plantation made during the month of October should be well watered.
  • 2.Care should be taken for the sanitation of orchards by removing thorns, bushes and other long weeds which are the breeding places for insects and pests.
  • 3.A number of herbaceous perennials including primrose, columbine may be potted and kept indoors for early flowering in the following season.
  • 4.Land preparation should be started for peas, lentil, wheat, oats, Lucerne, red-clover, berseem, and brown sarson. 1st ploughing should be given when fields are in proper moisture condition.
  • 5.Root ball evergreen may be planted during the month.
  • 6.Sowing of methi, garlic, coriander, spinach, and beet-root may be continued.
  • 7.Collection of egg masses of hairy caterpillar and their subsequent destruction shall reduce infestation in coming seasons.
  • 8.Transplanting of onion may be done by uprooting healthy seedling when bed is moist. Line planting may be adopted keeping 20 cm between the rows and 15 cm between the plants. Before transplanting the seedlings may be treated with proper fungicide.
  • 9.Wooly aphid and San-Jose-Scale on apple can be managed by application of one of the insecticides; Methyl demoton (0.025%), Dimethoate (0.05%), Endosulfan (0.05%). In case infestation is restricted to only few plants it would be worthwhile to make spot treatment of the insecticides.
  • 10.Transplanting of annuals and biennials may be done as soon as the beds become clear, prepare them by applying well rotten manure and fertilizer mixture of NPK before transplanting seedlings.
  • 11.The spraying of fungicides against different diseases may be carried out as per the spray schedule of State Agriculture University.
  • 12.Harvesting of apple should be continued. Fruits should be harvested only after ensuring that they have attained characteristic skin colour of peel, flesh and seed, texture and flavour.
  • 13.Harvested fruits should be kept in cool place in the orchard to extract the field heat for better keeping quality.
  • 14.An established hedge deciduous or evergreen can be moved to desired location from the middle of the month of October.
  • 15.For sowing of Rabi crops viz. Brown Sarson, Peas, Wheat, Lentil (Masoor), Berseem and Oats, select well drained fields and ensure pre-sowing irrigation wherever the fields are not in proper moisture conditions. 2 to 3 ploughing accompanied by clod breaking operation be done to obtain a desired tilth. Other practices are summarized bellow in a tabular form;

Crop Variety Field operations
Brown Sarson KS-101 (Gulchin), Shalimar Brown Sarson-1 ü Starts sowing of seeds @ 375 to 500g per kanal up to mid October in lines with 30 cm inter row spacing. ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 3.25 kg Urea (basal dose), 5.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP and 8 kg Gypsum per kanal at the time of sowing.
Wheat Shalimar Wheat-1, VL-738, HS-240 ü Starts sowing of seeds from 10th to 20th of October @ 5 kg per kanal in lines with 23 cm inter row spacing. Place the seeds 3 to 5 cm deep into the soil. ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 3.5 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP and 1 kg Zinc sulphate per kanal at the time of sowing.
Peas Rachna, Prakash ü Starts sowing of seeds from 15th October to 15th November @ 3 to 4 kg per kanal in lines with 30 cm spacing between the rows. Place the seeds 5 to 6 cm deep into the soil. ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Lentil (Masoor) Shalimar Masoor-1 ü Starts sowing of seeds from 15th October to 15th November @ 2 kg per kanal in lines with 25 cm spacing between the rows. Place the seeds 2 to 3cm deep into the soil. ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 2.5 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Berseem BL-180 ü Seed sowing should be completed by 15th October @ 1 to 1.25 kg per kanal ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 0.75 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.
Oats Sabzar, Shalimar Fodder Oats-1 ü Sow the seeds up to 15th October @ 5 kg per kanal in lines 20 cm apart. ü Apply fertilizers as per soil test report. In absence of soil test report apply 4.5 kg Urea (basal dose), 6.5 kg DAP, 3.25 kg MOP per kanal at the time of sowing.

Advisory for the Month of November;

  • 1. To avoid the black rot / bacterial diseases in cabbage, knoll khol, cauliflower pluck the leaves showing initial symptoms of the diseases and ensure their destruction. After leaf plucking, immediately spray the crop with Streptocycline (0.03%), repeat the spray at 10 to 15 days, if required.
  • 2. 1st thinning in brown-sarson should be done any time 20 days after germination. Remove excess plants in such manner that inter and intra row spacing of 30 ´ 10 cm is maintained finally i.e. 3.33 lakh plants/ha. While thinning keep extra plants in a row as an allowance for frost injury. Leftover excess plants can be removed during 1st to 2nd week of March. Under broadcast conditions, 1st thinning should be done in such a manner that approximately 50 plants are maintained per sq. meter area.
  • 3. For seed production in root crops like; turnip, radish and carrot, select true to type roots. Prepare sticking by trimming, keeping about 5 cm of tops and 10 cm of root portion in carrot and radish. In turnip only tail portion is cut off. Before planting apply 1 ton FYM, 9 kg urea, 10 kg DAP and 5 kg MOP/kanal. Plant at a distance of 60 ´ 30 cm on well prepared ridges. Cover the crown portion of roots with soil to avoid exposure to frost.
  • 4. Sowing of lentil should be done from 15th of October to 15th of November but preferably completed by October.
  • 5. To protect the house plants bring the tender pot plants to a living room or protective house and keep additional protection material such as newspapers. On sunny days watering in excessively dried up pots can be done.
  • 6. For seed production in cole crops, rogue out undesirable plants and allow true to type plants to produce seeds in in-situ method. In transplanting method select true to type plants and replant them at spacing of 30 ´ 30 cm in kale, 50 ´ 30 cm in knol khol and 60 ´ 45 cm in cabbage. Before planting, apply well rotten FYM @ 1 to 1.5 tonnes, 6 to 10 kg DAP, and 5 kg MOP per kanal as basal dose in kale and knoll khol. In kale remove apical portion of stalk and in knoll khol and cabbage remove outer leaves. Cover cabbage head and knoll khol partially with soil to avoid frost injury.

Advisory for the Month of December;

  • In case of heavy snowfall the shaking of fruit trees should be done manually and supports should be provided to the broken limbs of trees.
  • Provide drainage in brown sarson. In fields, where there is apprehension of water stagnation during spring months, create surface drainage channels during this lean period on priority basis so that topsoil surface does not get frozen.
  • Transplantation of onion may be continued.
  • Sowing of methi, orach, and spinach may be continued.
  • In order to reduce the population load of hairy caterpillar, san-jose-scale, pin hole borer, bark beetles etc. in coming spring, it is advisable, to collect and destroy the egg masses of the hairy caterpillar.
  • Continue pruning and destruction of infested branches with the insect pests.
  • Dead wood left in the orchard should be destroyed completely.
  • For training of young fruit trees, Modified Central Leader System for stone, nut fruits, and pome, and Kniffen, Head Or Bower System for grapes should be adopted.
  • For the control of san-jose-scale and other sucking pests, late dormant oil spray should be done only when the temperature remains above 4C0.
  • For growing garlic crop, plant cloves in well drained and loose soil. Divide the field into rectangular plots convenient for cultural operations. Before planting apply FYM 1.25 to 1.5 tones/ha and 8.3 kg urea, 6.6 kg DAP, and 5.00 kg MOP/kanal. Nitrogen should be given in two splits. Dibble the cloves in lines 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep and keeping their growing tips upwards at spacing of 15 ´ 10 cm.
  • During pruning of bearing trees, thin out dry diseased and intercepting branches and remove shoots with unproductive spurs. In case of old trees with open centre system retain only 4 to 5 wide angled scaffold branches uniformly distributed around the trunk. This will take care of the apprehended snow damage. Apply Bordeaux paint on cut surface with diameter 1 to 2 cm or more.

Package of Practices for Raising Vegetable Crops under the Agro-Climatic Conditions of Kashmir Valley

Crop with variety Seed rate per kannalDate of sowingDate of transplantingSpacing between line to lineSpacing between plant to plantFYM Quintal per kannalUrea Kg per kannalDAP Kg per kannal MOP Kg per kannalYield Quintal per kannal
Kale (1.Khanyari, 2. GM Dhari. )100 to 125 gramMarch to April & Aug-Sep.April- May & Sep-Oct.30 cm15 cm125-1508.86.65.110-12

Knolkhol (1. Early white.

2. Purple. King of market.)

60 to 75 gramMarch to Aug.April- Sep.30 cm15 cm125-15012.76.66.813-14
Cabbage (1. Golden acre. 2. Pussa Drum head.)25 to 40 gramMarch to April & July-Aug,April- May & Sep-Oct.45-60 cm45 cm75-10015.46.65.112-15
Cauliflower (1. Snow ball.)25 to 30 gramJuly-Aug. & April-MayAug-Sep. & May- June60 cm30cm125-1508.713.35.110-15
French bean (1. Bush top. 2. Cantender)4-5 KgApril- June 30 cm10 cm100-1252.16.65.13.5-5
Okra (1. Pusa sohani)750-100 gramMay 45 cm30 cm125-15011.5105.14-5
Radish for roughage (1. Scarlet globe. 2. French break. 3. Fast.)400 to 500 gramMarch-June 20 cm10 cm125-15052.82.14-5
Tomato (1. Shalimar-1. 2. Shalimar-2. 3. Roma.)25 to 30 gramMarch-AprilApril-15 June45-60 cm30-45 cm125-15011.510-13.35-7.611-12
Brinjal (1. Dilruba. 2. Pusa purple long. 3. Shalimar long.)25 to 45 gramApril–MayMay-15 June60 cm45-60 cm100-12514.213.310.28-10
Chilli (1. Shalimar long. 2. Kashmir long-1.)75 to 100 gramApril-15 MayMay-15 June30 cm20 cm100-12511.795.156-62
Capsicum (1. Nishat-1)50 to 75 gramApril-15 MayMay-15 June60 cm45 cm100-12511.510.05.17-10
Potato (1. Khofri jyoti. 2. Gulmargh special.)100 to 120 kgMarch & July 60 cm20 cm125-15016.6118.5100-125
Cucumber (1. Japanese long green. 2. Green express. )125 gramApril- May 150 cm50 cm125-1757.23.32.54.5
Pumpkin (1. Bhadami. 2. Arka chanden.)300 gramApril- May 300 cm100 cm125-1756.75.54.211-14
Bottle gourd (1. Shalimar M Proud.)300 to 400 gramApril- May 200 cm100 cm1257.2332.510-12.5
Bitter gourd (1. Arkaharat.)250 to 300 gramApril- May 150 cm60 cm125-1506.22.82.14-5
Radish for pickles (1. White round. 2. Japanese long.)400 to 500 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm75-1008.76.75.1125-150

Turnip (1. Purple top.

2. White globe. 3. Pusa chanderma. 4. Nigheen.)

250 to 350 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm75-1008.76.75.114-16

Carrot (1. Early nights.

2. Chaman. 3. Local black. )

175 to 250 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm100-1258.76.75.110-12

Onion (1. Red globe.

2. Yellow globe.)

375 to 500 gramAug-Sep.Ending Feb-March & Oct-Nov,20 cm15 cm100-15015.46.75.110-12
Garlic (1. Kashmiri local.)25-35 KgNov. 15 cm10 cm125-1509.86.75.15-6

Pea (1. Arkel.

2. Shalimar matar.)

4-4.5 KgOct-Nov. 30 cm10 cm100-1254.36.75.110-12

Spinach (1. Shalimar green.

2. Purple stand.)

250-300 gramOct-March 15-20 cm 125-1506.7  10.5

Methi (1. Pussa early.

2. Kasoori methi.)

5 & 2 KgSep-Nov 20-25 cm 50-756.7  3-4

Wast hack (1. Local red.

2. Local green. )

1 KgEnding Feb-March 15-20 cm 50-756.7  12-15

Agro-Chemicals and Their Commercial Names:

Fungicides
Zed-78 (80WP)Ziram
Ziride (80WP)
Ziron (27W/V)
Cuman-L (27W/V)
Captaf (50WP)Captan
Deltan (50WP)
Kohicap (50WP)
Jaicap (50WP)
Hesacap (50WP)
Captan (50WP)
Score (25EC)Difenaconazole
Scale (25EC)
Sumi-8 (25WP)Diniconazole
Tatashan (75WP)Dithionon
Superstar (65WP)Dodine
Scabicide (65WP)
Scabicide (50F)
Rubigan (12EC)Fenarimol
EnvilHexaconazole
Contaf (5EC)
Titan (5EC)
Anvil (5EC)
Control (5EC)
Manseb (75WP)Mancozeb
Indofil-M45 (75WP)
Mancozeb Flowable (35SL)
Zinthane (75WP)
Jai-M45 (75WP)
Shield (75WP)
Khoinoor-M45 (75WP)
Index (10WP)Myclobutanil
Boon (10WP)
Grapple (10WP)
Topas (10EC)Penconazole
Antracol (75WP)Propineb
Bayleton (25WP)Triadimefon
Indofil Z-78Zineb
Baycor 25WPBitertanol
Insecticides
Sholay (35EC)Endosulfan
Thiodan (35EC)
Rogor (30EC)Dimethoate
Metasystox (25EC)Methyl-o-demeton
Coroban (20EC)Chlorpyriphos
Kohiban (20EC)
Zolone (35EC)Phosalone
Ekalux (25EC)Quinalphos
Calypso (240SC)Thiocloprid (240SC)
Miticides (Agro-Chemicals for Mite Control)
Colonals (18.5EC)Dicofol
Supernomite (18.5EC)
Ethion (50EC)Ethion
Tope (50EC)
Vertimec (1.8EC)Abamectin
Magister (10EC)Fenazaquin
Milbeknock (1EC)Milbemectin
Omite (75EC)Propagate
Fenpyroximate (5SC)Fenpyroximate
Acarex-HHerbal
Maiden (5EC)Hexythiazox 5EC
Insecticides/Miticides
Dantop (50WDG)Clothianidin 50WDG

Horticultural Mineral Oil for Dormant Spray:

  • DC Tron Plus.
  •  
  • Atso Spray Oil.
  • Sparrow 888 Plus.
  • Diesel Oil Emulsion.
  • Orchex-796.
  • PD Spray Oil.
  • Arbofine Extra.
  • HP Trees Spray Oil.

Horticultural Mineral Oil for Summer Spray:

  • Atso Spray Oil.
  • Arbofine Extra.
  • DC Tron Plus.
  • PD Spray Oil.
  • HP Summer Spray Oil.

Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Different Fruit/Horticulture Plants:

Advisory for the Month of December;

 

  • 1. In case of heavy snowfall the shaking of fruit trees should be done manually and supports should be provided to the broken limbs of trees.
  • 2. Provide drainage in brown sarson. In fields, where there is apprehension of water stagnation during spring months, create surface drainage channels during this lean period on priority basis so that topsoil surface does not get frozen.
  • 3. Transplantation of onion may be continued.
  • 4. Sowing of methi, orach, and spinach may be continued.
  • 5.  In order to reduce the population load of hairy caterpillar, san-jose-scale, pin hole borer, bark beetles etc. in coming spring, it is advisable, to collect and destroy the egg masses of the hairy caterpillar.
  • 6. Continue pruning and destruction of infested branches with the insect pests.
  • 7.  Dead wood left in the orchard should be destroyed completely.
  • 8. For training of young fruit trees, Modified Central Leader System for stone, nut fruits, and pome, and Kniffen, Head Or Bower System for grapes should be adopted.
  • 9. For the control of san-jose-scale and other sucking pests, late dormant oil spray should be done only when the temperature remains above 4C0.
  • 10 For growing garlic crop, plant cloves in well drained and loose soil. Divide the field into rectangular plots convenient for cultural operations. Before planting apply FYM 1.25 to 1.5 tones/ha and 8.3 kg urea, 6.6 kg DAP, and 5.00 kg MOP/kanal. Nitrogen should be given in two splits. Dibble the cloves in lines 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep and keeping their growing tips upwards at spacing of 15 ´ 10 cm.
  • 11. During pruning of bearing trees, thin out dry diseased and intercepting branches and remove shoots with unproductive spurs. In case of old trees with open centre system retain only 4 to 5 wide angled scaffold branches uniformly distributed around the trunk. This will take care of the apprehended snow damage. Apply Bordeaux paint on cut surface with diameter 1 to 2 cm or more.

Package of Practices for Raising Vegetable Crops under the Agro-Climatic Conditions of Kashmir Valley

Crop with variety Seed rate per kannalDate of sowingDate of transplantingSpacing between line to lineSpacing between plant to plantFYM Quintal per kannalUrea Kg per kannalDAP Kg per kannal MOP Kg per kannalYield Quintal per kannal
Kale (1.Khanyari, 2. GM Dhari. )100 to 125 gramMarch to April & Aug-Sep.April- May & Sep-Oct.30 cm15 cm125-1508.86.65.110-12

Knolkhol (1. Early white.

2. Purple. King of market.)

60 to 75 gramMarch to Aug.April- Sep.30 cm15 cm125-15012.76.66.813-14
Cabbage (1. Golden acre. 2. Pussa Drum head.)25 to 40 gramMarch to April & July-Aug,April- May & Sep-Oct.45-60 cm45 cm75-10015.46.65.112-15
Cauliflower (1. Snow ball.)25 to 30 gramJuly-Aug. & April-MayAug-Sep. & May- June60 cm30cm125-1508.713.35.110-15
French bean (1. Bush top. 2. Cantender)4-5 KgApril- June 30 cm10 cm100-1252.16.65.13.5-5
Okra (1. Pusa sohani)750-100 gramMay 45 cm30 cm125-15011.5105.14-5
Radish for roughage (1. Scarlet globe. 2. French break. 3. Fast.)400 to 500 gramMarch-June 20 cm10 cm125-15052.82.14-5
Tomato (1. Shalimar-1. 2. Shalimar-2. 3. Roma.)25 to 30 gramMarch-AprilApril-15 June45-60 cm30-45 cm125-15011.510-13.35-7.611-12
Brinjal (1. Dilruba. 2. Pusa purple long. 3. Shalimar long.)25 to 45 gramApril–MayMay-15 June60 cm45-60 cm100-12514.213.310.28-10
Chilli (1. Shalimar long. 2. Kashmir long-1.)75 to 100 gramApril-15 MayMay-15 June30 cm20 cm100-12511.795.156-62
Capsicum (1. Nishat-1)50 to 75 gramApril-15 MayMay-15 June60 cm45 cm100-12511.510.05.17-10
Potato (1. Khofri jyoti. 2. Gulmargh special.)100 to 120 kgMarch & July 60 cm20 cm125-15016.6118.5100-125
Cucumber (1. Japanese long green. 2. Green express. )125 gramApril- May 150 cm50 cm125-1757.23.32.54.5
Pumpkin (1. Bhadami. 2. Arka chanden.)300 gramApril- May 300 cm100 cm125-1756.75.54.211-14
Bottle gourd (1. Shalimar M Proud.)300 to 400 gramApril- May 200 cm100 cm1257.2332.510-12.5
Bitter gourd (1. Arkaharat.)250 to 300 gramApril- May 150 cm60 cm125-1506.22.82.14-5
Radish for pickles (1. White round. 2. Japanese long.)400 to 500 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm75-1008.76.75.1125-150

Turnip (1. Purple top.

2. White globe. 3. Pusa chanderma. 4. Nigheen.)

250 to 350 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm75-1008.76.75.114-16

Carrot (1. Early nights.

2. Chaman. 3. Local black. )

175 to 250 gramAug-Sep. 30 cm15 cm100-1258.76.75.110-12

Onion (1. Red globe.

2. Yellow globe.)

375 to 500 gramAug-Sep.Ending Feb-March & Oct-Nov,20 cm15 cm100-15015.46.75.110-12
Garlic (1. Kashmiri local.)25-35 KgNov. 15 cm10 cm125-1509.86.75.15-6

Pea (1. Arkel.

2. Shalimar matar.)

4-4.5 KgOct-Nov. 30 cm10 cm100-1254.36.75.110-12

Spinach (1. Shalimar green.

2. Purple stand.)

250-300 gramOct-March 15-20 cm 125-1506.7  10.5

Methi (1. Pussa early.

2. Kasoori methi.)

5 & 2 KgSep-Nov 20-25 cm 50-756.7  3-4

Wast hack (1. Local red.

2. Local green. )

1 KgEnding Feb-March 15-20 cm 50-756.7  12-15

Agro-Chemicals and Their Commercial Names:

Fungicides
Zed-78 (80WP)Ziram
Ziride (80WP)
Ziron (27W/V)
Cuman-L (27W/V)
Captaf (50WP)Captan
Deltan (50WP)
Kohicap (50WP)
Jaicap (50WP)
Hesacap (50WP)
Captan (50WP)
Score (25EC)Difenaconazole
Scale (25EC)
Sumi-8 (25WP)Diniconazole
Tatashan (75WP)Dithionon
Superstar (65WP)Dodine
Scabicide (65WP)
Scabicide (50F)
Rubigan (12EC)Fenarimol
EnvilHexaconazole
Contaf (5EC)
Titan (5EC)
Anvil (5EC)
Control (5EC)
Manseb (75WP)Mancozeb
Indofil-M45 (75WP)
Mancozeb Flowable (35SL)
Zinthane (75WP)
Jai-M45 (75WP)
Shield (75WP)
Khoinoor-M45 (75WP)
Index (10WP)Myclobutanil
Boon (10WP)
Grapple (10WP)
Topas (10EC)Penconazole
Antracol (75WP)Propineb
Bayleton (25WP)Triadimefon
Indofil Z-78Zineb
Baycor 25WPBitertanol
Insecticides
Sholay (35EC)Endosulfan
Thiodan (35EC)
Rogor (30EC)Dimethoate
Metasystox (25EC)Methyl-o-demeton
Coroban (20EC)Chlorpyriphos
Kohiban (20EC)
Zolone (35EC)Phosalone
Ekalux (25EC)Quinalphos
Calypso (240SC)Thiocloprid (240SC)
Miticides (Agro-Chemicals for Mite Control)
Colonals (18.5EC)Dicofol
Supernomite (18.5EC)
Ethion (50EC)Ethion
Tope (50EC)
Vertimec (1.8EC)Abamectin
Magister (10EC)Fenazaquin
Milbeknock (1EC)Milbemectin
Omite (75EC)Propagate
Fenpyroximate (5SC)Fenpyroximate
Acarex-HHerbal
Maiden (5EC)Hexythiazox 5EC
Insecticides/Miticides
Dantop (50WDG)Clothianidin 50WDG

Horticultural Mineral Oil for Dormant Spray:

  • DC Tron Plus.
  •  
  • Atso Spray Oil.
  • Sparrow 888 Plus.
  • Diesel Oil Emulsion.
  • Orchex-796.
  • PD Spray Oil.
  • Arbofine Extra.
  • HP Trees Spray Oil.

Horticultural Mineral Oil for Summer Spray:

  • Atso Spray Oil.
  • Arbofine Extra.
  • DC Tron Plus.
  • PD Spray Oil.
  • HP Summer Spray Oil.

Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Different Fruit/Horticulture Plants:

Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Grapes/Plant
Age Urea (gram)DAP (gram)Potash (gram)
19010050
2150200100
3350300150
4 or above750500200
Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Apple and Pear /Plant
Age Urea (gram)DAP (gram)Potash (gram)
1352550
27050100
310575150
4135100200
5170125250
6250150350
7315200450
8400235540
9455300630
10530325730
11645395900
127255001050
138505251200
149605751340
1510656501500
Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Walnut /Plant
Age Urea (gram)DAP (gram)Potash (gram)
1206530
2306540
3406550
4606565
5856580
613665125
719065165
829070250
9390110330
10490130415
11585160500
12780215665
13980270830
141175325995
151565435995
1619605401245
1724606501995
1829507601825
1934159752155
20391510852400
Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Almond /Plant
Age Urea (gram)DAP (gram)Potash (gram)
1552560
211050130
317075200
4225100260
5280125330
6400150580
7515200750
8635225910
97403001080
10 or above8603251240
Dose of Chemical Fertilizers Recommended for Cherry /Plant
Age Urea (gram)DAP (gram)Potash (gram)
1352050
27045100
310565140
414080200
5175110250
6245150350
7315195450
8385240530
9455280630
10525325730
11630390900
127354601050
138405201200
149415851350
1510506501500

1. Non-conventional feed and fodder resources should be utilized for the development of livestock in the state. Research outputs of State Agriculture University to convert the agricultural waste into livestock feed should be commercialized by state government either through its own or private initiatives.

2. Apricot cake (more than 30% CP) of wild variety can be used efficiently in field to fulfill the protein requirement of the animal.

3. Establishment of effective feed banks.

4. There is also necessary to establish a database information centre to provide information regarding high altitude feed resource, availability, level of incorporation in the diet, chemical composition, level of toxic principles and number of livestock in different region etc.

5. Identification of potential pasture areas and development of pastures.

6. There is need of improvement of pastures through rotational grazing and reseeding with good quality seeds. Wastelands should be used for fodder production.

7. Better water and land use control of soil erosion through watershed management, afforestation, silvipasture development and replacement of annual crops with perennial shrubs and plantation crops in steep slopes.

8. Productivity of land should be increased due to increased competition of humans with livestock for food. Limited area is available for production of feed and fodder for livestock. Research efforts should be strengthened to increase the bioavailability of nutrients of feeds and fodders using chemical, biological and biotechnological approaches.

9. Self-help group and co-operatives specifically livestock based should be developed.

10. Extension activities should be strengthened. Training should be organized to disseminate knowledge of advanced animal husbandry and dairy practices to the farmers, especially women in hill region, as they are major working force in maintaining household livestock.

11. Animal husbandry related desired information should be provided to the farmers in the form of printed leaflets and mass media.

12. Educating the farmers for balanced feeding and its benefits.

13. Opportunities should be provided to women for upgrading their skills in Krishi Vigyan Kendras. The district manpower planning and employment generation councils will have to prepare detailed blue-prints and action plans for this purpose.

14. Credit facilities should be provided to the framers for possible activities.

15. Development of entrepreneurship among the rural youth in the animal husbandry sector.

16. Marketing facility should be developed for livestock and livestock related products. Marketing channels should be studied and developed best marketing network to fetch maximum profit for producer as well as provide the product at remunerative price to the consumers.

17. Market opportunities for mountain agriculture are increasing with the growing concern of organic food. This further strengthens and widens the path for livestock development in hill area along with the mountain livelihood.

18. Projects, policies and schemes should include the views of local mass as well as dynamic local people, so that more local people will participate actively in their implication.

19. Movement of men towards city from mountain areas for better livelihood further weakens the livestock farming in hill area. So, there is need of agricultural implements and machinery which could be handled by the women.

20. The voluntary organizations or non government organizations in general should focus their voluntary action and service to tackle problem of common people or help them to face their challenges. Involvement of NGOs and self-help groups (SHG) will foster community development, gender empowerment and promote the concept of saving money amongst the poor to build self-confidence and social security in long run.

21. The state government should encourage livestock development through modern technology and take up some short duration projects along with NGO development to meet the increasing demand of livestock products due to climatic conditions.

22. The state government should introduce low-cost village level technology for better use of animal products, processing and marketing.

23. The Kathua and Jammu districts, which are contiguous to Poonch and Rajouri districts and also to the Punjab where Gujjar population predominates, are ideally suited for dairy development. By forming Gujjar co-operative societies and giving them technical and financial inputs, the milk yield can be improved.

24. Grant of long term credit facilities in the form of soft loans for arranging the balanced feed and dry fodder for the scarcity period.

25. Processing technologies should be improved for production of value added products followed by proper market organization.

26. Timely, relevant and need based transfer of technology.

27. The state government should take steps to establish cattle breeding centres and should open frozen semen centres in remote areas to cover all local cattle population.

28. Mobile AI services should be promoted to reach doorstep of the farmers. Stationary AI centre should be converted in to mobile AI centre.
29. Pasture of migratory route should be developed by involving the nomadic grazers through providing allied facilities of drinking water for livestock, improvement of bridle paths and raising of a few shelter sheds on the migratory route.

30. Coordination between different developmental departments.

31. Backyard poultry farming should be strengthened in rural areas of hill.

32. Scientific nutritional and managemental practices should take to improve the productivity.

33. Though the production of milk, meat, egg etc. is increasing, the present subsistent livestock farming may not be able to meet the increased demands in future. Livestock enterprises with improved breeds/ strains under semi-intensive and intensive management are likely to grow. However, small holder subsistent production system will be the mainstay in livestock production at least for the foreseeable future.

34. Fodder nursery should be established for production and transplantation of improved verities of legumes and herbs.

35. Seed production stations should be developed for self sufficiency in seed availability.

36. Management of lambing include;

  • 1. Leave the ewes alone to lamb, do not disturb them and watch for about half an hour.
  • 2. Ewes that are to lamb effort but do not get on lambing for half an hour or more need manual assistance under complete asepsis, antisepsis and working with the ewes and never against it.
  • 3. Wash udder after lambing with antiseptic solution.
  • 4. Dispose off after births (placenta) properly.
  • 5. Remove mucous from nostrils, mouth and throat of the newborn if needed by gentle gravitation method.
  • 6.Allow the mother to lick lamb as soon as possible or make her to do so, if required by sprinkling salt or wheat bran or both on the body of the lamb or if needed dry the lamb with a towel.
  • 7. Apply strong tincture of iodine to the navel, repeat twice/ thrice on first day and thereafter daily for a few days to avoid navel ill.
  • 8. Record birth weight in a basket and record body measurements. Avoid indiscriminate handling.
  • 9. Assist the lamb to suckle colustrum if needed and nurse the orphans or lambs of dams with no milk.
  • 10. Help the ewe to own lamb and to keep it at foot especially in primipara to avoid disowning of the lamb.
  • 11. Use of ‘boots’ in lambs for a few days if they are unable to stand o toes.
  • 12. Use wiremesh on doors/ windows to check entrance of carrion birds while lambs ae in sheds and keep watch when on range.
  • 13. Examine lambs for its normal structures especially atresia ani, entropion and ectopion and operate as soon as needed.
  • 14. Keep lambs comfortably warm for a few days and avoid exposure to cold and winds.
  • 15. The lambs from birth towards weaning must be prevented from sudden and severe climatic changes.
  • 16. Construct temporary (or if possible permanent) shelters for lambs to give umbrella coverage during inclement weathers and seasonal severities. Also manage quick migration to safe places if and when needed.
  • 17. Preparation of temporary paddocks or enclosures or safety shelters for nights.
  • 18. Practise pasture spelling.
  • 19. Dosing of animals with care using proper drug, correct dosage and appropriate time and mode of administration.
  • 20. Provision of additional rations when required and management of the sick.
  1. 37. Have a good knowledge of the grazing areas in highland pastures and their surroundings. Plan ahead of migration and survey/ approach migration places from time to time.
  1. 38. Avoid grazing in or near inaccessible places or areas harbouring poisonous weeds.
  1. 39.Migrate in stages and do not cover long distances in shorter time.
  1. 40.Graze lambs at places reasonably safe or that can be kept reasonably safe and ensure prompt watch and ward.
  1. 41.Management of lamb losses includes;
  • a)  Losses in sheep industry are higher in newborn and slow down with age. Between implantation and weaning, most losses occur at birth or during first week of life and it slows down to weaning. As such the lamb losses have the great economic importance and are of major concern for the sheep workers.
  • b) The supervision and rearing of lambs is of paramount importance and demands a sheep worker to be “on the job” day and night.
  • c) Scientific management, feeding, breeding and disease control constitute pivotal pillars in minimizing the lambs either due to mortality, morbidity and cost of medication as well as loss of production.

42 Management of pregnant ewes and breeding;

  • a) Avoid inbreeding of close relatives and resort to out-crossing in purebreds.
  • b) Avoid exposure of pregnant ewes to toxins, toxic drugs and toxic plants.
  • c) Feeding of balanced ration with essential minerals and vit. A during winter, so that the pregnant ewes remain in gaining condition.
  • d) Time and interval of feeding concentrate and hay to be corrected and large gaps of feeding or too frequent feeding in 24 hours be avoided.
  • e) Condition scoring of ewes from time to time
  • 21 Days Advanced National Training Programme on “Mushroom Production and Processing Technology” will be jointly organized by IGKV Raipur & NADCL Baramulla during March 02-22-2021
  • International Conference on “Current Advances in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Allied Sciences (CAAAAS-2020)” which was scheduled to be organized on 07–09 May 2020 at SMVDU, Katra, (India) has been postponed and as soon as the normalcy returns in India new date of the said conference will be communicated/announced